CTV/OTT Glossary

A


Addressable TV

Technology that enables audience-based TV ad targeting and delivery using first-second- or third-party data segments. It includes both linear TV and video-on-demand (VOD), but excludes connected TV, smart TV, and over-the-top (OTT). 

Advanced TV

An umbrella term that refers to television content that evolves beyond traditional, linear TV delivery models. Advanced TV targeting enables advertisers to serve one ad to one household as opposed to broadcasting the same ad to all households. Includes Addressable TV, Over the Top (OTT) and Connected TV (CTV). 

AVOD (Ad-based or Ad supported Video on Demand)

An acronym for Ad-based (or Ad-supported) Video On Demand, which is a streaming video service that offers consumers access to a free catalog of on-demand content and contains advertisements. Examples: YouTube, Tubi, Crackle. 

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C


CDN

An initialism for Content Distribution Network, which is a service that hosts online assets and provides content management via servers located around the globe to reduce the latency of downloads to users. 

CPP

An initialism for Cost Per Point, which is a pricing model based on the cost of a campaign divided by each full percentage rating point of a targeted demographic that the campaign successfully reaches.

CTV

An initialism for Connected TV, which is a television set that is connected to the Internet via CTV devices, Blu-ray players and gaming consoles or has built-in Internet capabilities (i.e., a Smart Television) and is able to access a variety of long-form and short-form web-based content. 

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D


DAI

An initialism for Dynamic Ad Insertion, which is sometimes used interchangeably with SSAI, Dynamic ad insertion (DAI) is a technology that allows advertisers to swap out ad creatives in linear, live or video-on-demand content. DAI allows advertisers to serve different ads to each viewer based on insights on performance. 

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G


GRP

An initialism for Gross Rating Point, which is used to measure the size of an audience reached by a specific media vehicle or schedule. It is used to measure the exposure to one or more programs or commercials, without regard to multiple exposures of the same advertising to individuals. It represents a percentage of the target audience reached by an advertisement using the formula: GRP = frequency X % of each. For example, an advertisement that is aired/served 5 times reaching 50% of the target audience each time it is aired would have a GRP of 250 (5 x 50%). GRP values are typically used by media buyers to compare the advertising strength of various media vehicles. 

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M


Manifest File

A file that is sent to the video player containing information about the video to be played, such as the title, thumbnail, and location of the streaming filesIn SSAI scenarios, the Stitcher manipulates the manifest file to combine content and ads for the video player to consume. 

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O


OTT

An initialism for Over-the-Top, which is the delivery of video content via the internet or “over the top” of infrastructure providers, i.e.  without the use of a traditional cable or satellite TV service. OTT video refers to the content or service (Netflix, Hulu, Amazon Prime, etc.) while OTT devices connect to a TV to facilitate the delivery of internet-based video content (streaming boxes, Smart TVs, gaming consoles).  

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S


SSAI

An initialism for Server-Side Ad Insertion, which is often referred to as “ad stitching,” SSAI is the process of stitching video content and ads together on the server-side level rather than on the browser level. SSAI creates smoother ad experiences for viewers and mitigates ad blocking for publishers.  

Streaming

Video Streaming refers to providing video to a user in real-time as it is being consumed, as opposed to a video download, which must be completed before being consumed. Video Streaming is available for both live events ("Live Streaming Video") and for pre-recorded digital video assets (VOD). OTT streaming video content publishers (“streaming services”) compress extremely large video content files and then “stream” small packets of that information over the internet to the user, who then can access the content on their connected device as it is received.  

SVOD

An acronym for Subscription Video on Demand, which is a streaming service that consumers subscribe to for a fee to access a catalog of on-demand content. Examples include Netlfix, Hulu, Amazon Prime Video, Disney+.

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T


TRP

An initialism for Target Rating Point, which is the percentage of an advertiser’s target audience that sees its commercials, advertisements, or campaign. Typically advertising is bought against a guaranteed demographic or audience segment. The TRP expresses that guaranteed audience. 

TV Everywhere

An online business model in which television broadcasters, particularly cable networks, allow their customers to access live and/or on-demand video content from their networks through Internet-based services.  

TVOD

An acronym for Transaction-based Video on Demand, which is a distribution method by which customers pay for each piece of video-on-demand content. For example, a customer would pay a fee for each movie or TV show that they watch. Examples: iTunes, Vudu. 

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V


VAST

An acronym for Video Ad Serving Template, which is a script that gives video players information about which ad to play, how the ad should show up, how long it should last, and whether users are able to skip it. This method is specifically designed for popular on-demand video players where ad responses are measured by each video play, but are not an executable ad format. Publishers may call “VAST tags” to request video ads from an ad server or SSP. 

vMVPD

An initialism for Virtual Multichannel Video Programming Distributed, which is a digital-only cable alternative that provides access to on-demand and live content delivered over the internet without traditional network infrastructure. Also known as linear OTT. Examples: DirectTV Now, Sling TV, Hulu Live, YouTube Live, PlutoTV.

VOD

An acronym for Video on Demand, which is Video content that is controlled, enabled, and consumed whenever a viewer wants after its official release date or original air date and time. VOD content can be found on set top boxes, OTT devices, mobile web, mobile apps, and video streaming services. 

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